Doctors resort to C-section for reasons that may be related to the health status of the pregnant woman or the health of the fetus, and the pregnant woman may opt for C-section for fear of pain caused by normal delivery.


C-section is a surgical procedure in which the doctor performs an incision in the lower abdomen just above the pubic hair and a second incision in the uterine wall to remove the fetus.
 It is determined from the advance time of delivery if the doctor thinks it is better than normal delivery or is performed as an emergency if complications occur during Labor. 
C-section is generally considered safe, but it risks more than normal delivery.

In most cases, C-section is performed by localized anesthesia so that the mother can be involved in the birth of her child and have direct contact with the child from the moment he/she begins life outside the womb. However, there are serious cases where a doctor may recommend general anesthesia.

The optimal time for C-section starting at the 39th or 40th week of gestation, if mother and child are well. When the procedure is performed, the stomach must be empty (not eating or drinking hours before the operation). The doctor then installs a hose, which is inserted into the urethra, to empty the bladder without having to go to the toilet.

After the pregnant woman is given local anesthesia or general, the doctor incision horizontal or vertical in the abdomen, then delivered the baby, removing the placenta from the mother's uterus wall, suturing the uterus and all other layers down to the skin, then closing skin with either medical floss or stitches.

C-section lasts between 40 and 60 minutes. The mother must lie down for 6 hours after the surgery, she can drink after 6 hours, she is hospitalized for 24 hours and the nurse measures her vital signs every 3 to 4 hours.


The doctor decides to perform a C-section, after ascertaining that a natural birth may endanger the life of the mother or the fetus.
By reason, C-section is classified into two types, as follows:

1. Reasons for a scheduled C-section

Here a pregnant woman knows she's giving birth to her baby by C-section, and the delivery is scheduled by a doctor, about two weeks before the expected delivery to make sure the fetus is fully developed.
Medical conditions requiring C-section include:
  • The mother previously had surgery on her uterus or an earlier C-section muscle.
  • Having problems with the placenta, such as placenta previa, can cause dangerous bleeding during childbirth Natural.
  • The fetus is in the seat position in the womb and its feet or bottoms are facing downward and cannot be twisted, or the fetus is in a cross position with its shoulder facing downward.
  •  Pregnant woman suffers from certain diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and kidney disease. This may make normal delivery risky.
  • If a pregnant woman is infected with HIV or genital herpes, it is necessary to have a C-section because both viruses can be transmitted to your baby during normal delivery.

2. Reasons for an unplanned C-section

Emergency C-section is an unplanned delivery that takes place when complications arise after labor has started, here the doctor decides not to continue the normal delivery, to save the mother and the fetus.
These medical conditions include:
  • The cervix has stopped contracting or the baby has stopped moving through the birth canal.
  • The umbilical cord slipped before the fetus, as the oxygen supply to it may be cut off.
  • Early placental separation from the uterus wall, cutting off oxygen to the baby.
  • Uterus rupture or scar tissue ruptured in a previous C-section.

Types of anesthesia in C-section

There are two main anesthesia types, one of which is used in C-section:

1. Local/regional anesthesia

Local/regional anesthesia is the most common and can be used for scheduled or emergency C-section.
Its function is to prevent pain in the abdomen, pelvis, and legs, so that the pregnant woman does not feel the lower part of her body, but is fully aware during the birth.

2.General anesthesia

General anesthesia is less common and about 10% of C-section are performed with this type of anesthesia. It is used in emergency cases to save the life of mother and baby.
The mother remains completely unconscious for the duration of the C-section and cannot see the child until she wakes up.

Types of C-section incisions

There are two types of incisions that the surgeon makes in the abdomen and uterus:

1. low transverse incision(or a “bikini cut”)

This type of incision is more common, the doctor makes an incision from one side of the abdomen to the other, just above the pubic hairline.
and doctors prefer it to avoid bleeding. The lower part of the uterus is very thin and contains fewer blood vessels, so less blood is lost. It also gives the woman the opportunity to have a normal delivery in the future, as it is less likely to rupture. Also, the healing scar is stronger, so it is less likely to open in subsequent births.

2.Vertical slit(or a “classical” C-section)

the incision is made vertically from just below the belly button to the top of the bikini line. ( between the navel and pubic hair).
This incision is usually done when the placenta covers the cervix, when the fetus is positioned horizontally across the birth canal, or when the fetus is born too early, or when the fetus has a birth defect. And, in this type, it is possible to experience bleeding, and the healing period of this wound is prolonged, and there is no opportunity for a woman to have a normal delivery in every future pregnancy.

Types of C-section incisions closures

There are a number of ways in which a surgeon can close a C-section wound:

1. Staples, where the doctor approximates the two parts of the injured skin and then presses the stapler to staple them together. This option is the most popular and widespread.

2. Stitches, by sewing the wound using a needle and a medical thread, and this process takes a long period of time, up to 30 minutes, but according to what scientific studies have provided, this method is the safest method after the operation and does not lead to exposure to any negative complications with the wound.

3. Surgical glue, surgical glue seals the skin, which is then topped with a transparent dressing. Some experts say that glue heals fastest and leaves the finest, least visible scar.

After surgery

In most cases of C-section, the mother and baby stay in the hospital for two to three days. After giving birth, the mother is advised to walk within the first 12 hours to calm the stomach and abdominal gases. Some pain may result from the wound not healing. 
After returning home, the mother must have complete rest, no exercise or intimacy, a proper diet, and the doctor's instructions on taking medication on time.

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